Earth’s first satellite was launched on 4 October 1957 peşcosmodromul Baiknour, being the starting point in the space race between the USSR and the USA. Soviet satellite is about Sputnik 1, which weighed 83.6 km and have a diameter of 58 cm. He conducted the 1410 revolutions around the Earth for 94 days, after which entered the earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated by burning.
The second artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik-2, launched on the same cosmodrome on November 3, 1957, weighed 508.3 kg and have a passenger named Laika puppy. After 163 days, the satellite carried circumterestra 2370 rpm, and it disintegrated in the earth’s atmosphere.
Since January 31, 1958, release date of the first American artificial satellite Explorer I, the Space Age began U.S. On January 2, 1959, cosmic rocket Lunik-1 exceeded Luna after 34 hours debating, passing at a distance of only 5-600 km it. The rocket, weighing 1472 kg, became the first artificial planet of our solar system. In 1961, the US already numbered 115 artificial satellites around the Earth. The first satellites were used for scientific research.
Production of high power rocket carrying and launching the Earth’s artificial moon opened the way conquest by man visiting planets and solar system (for now only supplied). At the same time they developed practical applications of artificial satellites in telecommunications. Phone number tracker system today is based on a telecommunications network, Telstar, was launched in the US in 1960. Today, an impressive number of objects launched from Earth (about one hundred thousand) revolves around the globe at different heights.
The first man launched into space on board an artificial satellite Vostok I, Soviet Major Yuri was Alexeevich Gagarin on 12 April 1961. In 1960, after an intense search and selection process, Yuri Gagarin was selected along with 19 other cosmonauts Soviet Space program. Along with other cosmonauts, he takes part to a rigorous series of experiments, special to test their physical and mental strength. He attended an intensive training and preparation for the flight that was to be conducted.
Of those twenty selected possible choices for the first launch were Gagarin and Gherman Titov, because of the excellent performance during training, but also because of their mental capacity – although a simulation with a small capsule Vostok both men were inferior. The ship weighed 4725 kg and flight found in one rotation around the earth for 108 minutes, landing took place in good conditions in the southern Soviet Union.
Astérix is the first artificial satellite of the French launched on November 26, 1965 by a rocket Diamant – A so France became the third space power after the USSR and the US and the sixth country in the world among those who placed a satellite in orbit after USSR, USA, UK, Canada and Italy.
Goliath is a scientific artificial nanosatellite, the first ever built in UK, launched into space on 13 February 2012 with the first flight of European Vega rocket. It has the shape of a cube with sides of 10 cm and weight of about 1 kg, being built on the American standard CubeSat.
The satellite will carry three scientific experiments: determining the flow of micrometeorites (SAMIS) the measurement of dose produced by cosmic rays in the orbit (Dose-N) and will also have installed a catcher image sensor 3 megapixels and a resolution ground 21x28m for Earth observation.
Telstar 1 was one of the first active communications satellite, launched into orbit by the US in 1962. He transmitted the first television shows “live” between the US and Europe. Also transmitted and telephone conversations. Syncom 4 communications satellite was launched by NASA on Discovery. Modern satellites receive, amplify and retransmit the information back to Earth, to television stations, fax, telephone or radio. Syncom 4 is geostationary orbit, which means it has the same speed as the Earth, remaining in a fixed position above Earth, offering the opportunity to maintain uninterrupted connections between stations on Earth.